The Goma volcano observatory confirmed that ash fell within a radius of 60 km of both volcanoes. 2005: June Nyamulagira (or Nyamuragira, 3058 m a.s.l.) Lava lake reappears in central crater in April 2018; activity tapers off during April 2019. On 11 and 12 February, the two anomalies had the same distribution and orientation, both showing an alignment along a SSE-NNW line drawn through the summit. Cinders and lapilli fell within a 1 km radius of Murara, and a lava flow (flow 2, figure 1) moved southward from a breach in the SW wall of the crater. The lava lake was again activated after an eruption that began in June 1994 (BGVN 19:06-19:08). SAR interferometry. The BBC reported concerns that the lava flow could destroy habitat occupied by an endangered population of about 40 chimpanzees and other wildlife on the volcano's lower slopes. The eruption has built 23 cinder cones along a 2.5-km zone that trends generally NE, ~15 km NE of Nyamuragira caldera and 5 km ENE of the 1957 Kitsimbanyi vent (figure 12 and table 1). Eruption in 2014 Nyamuragira is a 3,058 metres (10,033 ft) shield volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A strong eruption at Nyamuragira (the volcano's name in the Kinyarwanda language, but "Nyamulagira" in other DR Congo languages) (figure 30) began on 2 January 2010, the first reported eruption since November 2006 (BGVN 32:03).It produced extensive lava flows on the outer SSE flank. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. Mount Nyamuragira. For the eruption's first two weeks, lava fountaining was confined to the S end of a fissure ~500 m long. Bukavu, DR Congo; Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Météo-France, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse cedex, France (URL:; TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group (URL: According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira. The team has included researchers from the OVG, Dario Tedesco, and other international scientists. During the next 24 hours a large quantity of lava was discharged, forming a mass of blocks in a steep 10-m-high crest at the edge of the flow. Brousse, R., Cochemé, J.J., Pottier, Y., and Vellutini, P.J., 1979, Eruption and lavas of Murara: new volcano (December 1976-April 1977) in Kivu (Zaire): C.R. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL:; There is data available for 8 deformation periods. Information Contacts: Baluku Bajope and Kasereka Mahinda, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Smets and others (2010b) estimated the area covered by erupted products using an ASTER thermal image and found it to be 17.65 ? A strong eruption at Nyamuragira (the volcano's name in the Kinyarwanda language, but "Nyamulagira" in other DR Congo languages) ... three lava flows have reached the lake within the last 100 years, and acid rains and pyroclastic falls have regularly affected crops and urban zones in this area. NOAA reported that an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite detected high SO2 concentrations above Nyamuragira. Eruptive activity probably stopped that afternoon. Ash and Pele's hair fell 12 miles (20 km) from the volcano. (It is 13 km north-north-west of Nyiragongo, the volcano which caused extensive damage to the city of Goma in its 2002 eruption.) Historical eruptions from Nyamuragira (14 km NW of Nyiragongo) have occurred within the summit caldera and from numerous flank fissures and cinder cones. During the second half of April 2012, a larger and permanent SO2-rich gas plume started to escape from that pit crater. A plume of scoria and ash rose 6 km or slightly more. High lava fountaining in early July took place from a new vent on the W flank, named Kimera. More than 10 times the normal number of volcanic earthquakes were recorded on 11 December from Lwiro (~l00 km SSW of the volcano), and significantly more than the normal number on 12, 21, and 22 December. A small lava lake was again visible in the pit crater on 27 April 2016 when observed by Sebastien Valade of the University of Florence on another MONUSCO-sponsored flight (figure 65). Local tectonic earthquakes from late May through late June were 0-27 km deep, with an aseismic zone at 3-7 km. ... Lava fountains from Nyamuragira during the eruption in 2004 (Photo courtesy: B. Edmaier), The flat silhouette of Nyamuragira shield volcano, seen from Nyiragongo, Colors of Iceland: Fire, Earth, Ice and Water, Nyamuragira volcano (DRCongo) activity update: lava flow filled the Pit crater, Nyamuragira volcano (DRCongo): collapse of inner crater walls, lava spattering from cone in crater, Nyamuragira volcano (DR Congo): photos of the new eruption Nov 2011, Nyamuragira volcano (DR Congo) eruption 2011 photos: 19-20 November, Nyamuragira volcano eruption 2011-2012: photos 8 Jan 2012, Nyamuragira volcano Kimanura eruption 2011-12: photos 22-25 Jan, Nyamuragira volcano (DRCongo), Kimanura eruption 2011-12: expedition, Nyamuragira volcano (DRCongo), Kimanura eruption 2011-12: landscape. Incandescence was visible from the village of Gisenyi, Rwanda, roughly 30 km from the vent. The SO2 gas was most concentrated around the eruption site and thinned as it moved away. Carn, S.A., and Bluth, G.J.S., 2003, Prodigious sulfur dioxide emissions from Nyamuragira volcano, D.R. Smets, B., Wauthier, C., D'Oreye, N., 2010b (in press), A new map of the lava flow field of Nyamulagira (D.R. MONUSCO-supported summit crater visits by researchers on 2 April 2015, and photographer Oliver Grunwald on 10 July 2015, confirmed the presence of an active lava lake during both visits (figure 64, and video link in Information Contacts). As of 10 March, no lava fountains were observed and all flows had stopped. The vent propagated S and lava production was confined to a zone just W of the 1905 cone. Volcanic seismicity in the Nyamuragira/Nyiragongo area during 15-30 September was very high (figure 15). Then on 6 th February 2001, the neighboring Volcano, Mount Nyamuragira erupted for 2 weeks. Continued high SO2 concentrations over Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo (75 milli atm cm) indicated ongoing emissions at the time of the TOMS overpass. The activity of fountaining and lava emission regained some intensity at the beginning of the night but dropped dramatically during the early morning of 7 August. The last eruption of Nyamuragira was in 2006, a VEI 2 event that produced lava flows on the south flank, similar to what is occurring now. Our last report (BGVN 35:08) described a flank eruption at Nyamuragira during 2-27 January 2010 that produced a new cone and 12-km-long lava flows. in the final stage of the five month-long eruption on the NE flank of Nyamulagira, SO2-rich gas fumaroles were observed in the summit caldera of the volcano (D. Tedesco, Pers. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim. Four craters were active at the beginning of the eruption. Instrument and access issues in January 2019 prevented accurate assessment of seismicity for the month. Beginning on 12 April seismic and lava-lake activity both declined. A fissure eruption from the SE foot of Nyamuragira started during the night of 25-26 December. At the end of July, continuous fountaining ended and activity declined to intermittent Strombolian explosions, then stopped for ~24 hours on 1 August. Lava flows from a new cone on the S flank. Dario Tedesco reported SO2-rich fumaroles in Nyamuragira's central crater beginning in early March 2012, shortly before the NE-flank fissure eruptions ended (BGVN 40:01). Although the image resolution is not sufficient to differentiate between Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo as a plume source, the former has previously emitted large amounts of sulfur dioxide. Tephra ejection was also continuing, preventing aircraft from flying near the active fissure, although it was not as vigorous as during the initial explosion. Lava flows were fed through lava tubes, with fresh lava mainly visible at night. Lava poured from many vents, forming one main flow towards the NNW. [Later analysis of Nimbus-7 satellite data by Krueger and associates revealed the emission of a large SO2 plume at the start of the eruption at the end of 1981. The news report mentioned that Noel Kiloha, a volcanologist who worked for the Belgian Institute for Scientific Research in the area before independence, will continue to monitor the situation. Explosions occurred every few seconds during the early afternoon. Numerous flank eruptions have been observed since that time, the most recent during November 2011-March 2012 on the NE flank. A sequence of several alerts took place in the same spot during 22-29 June and on 12 and on 28 July 2014. at an angle of about 60°); at these extreme scan angles the pixel geolocation becomes less accurate (and the pixels increase in size, to about 2 by 4 km). The most consistent data comes from satellite – thermal data from the MODIS instrument processed by the MODVOLC and MIROVA systems, SO2 data from the AURA instrument on NASA's OMI satellite, and NASA Earth Observatory images from a variety of satellites. The latest eruption of Nyamuragira was its 15th since 1980. Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System. The eruption site could not be reached from Rumangabo, the settlement containing Virunga National Park's main office and the observatory's seismic station, because of security problems in the Park. Exactly when this lake was first established and whether it was sustained or ephemeral remains equivocal (Campion, 2014; Oskin, 2014). Bukavu, DR Congo; Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Météo-France, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse cedex, France (URL:; TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 613.3, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA (URL: Two cones formed at the beginning of the eruption; the northern-most cone grew close to Gasenyi cone (formed in 1980), and the southern-most cone was close to the Kagano (1989) and Ngerageze (2000) cones. Lava flowed 500 m in a direction south and southwest of the volcano. | July From 20 September until 5 February, activity was confined to a N32-34°E fissure (cones 1-8). Ash fell in several villages on the W and N flanks of the volcano. The chimpanzees were originally part of the main Tongo group across the valley, but were cut off from them by a lava flow during the Nyamulagira's 2012 eruption. Nyamuragira is Africa's most active volcano. Bukavu, Zaire. On 4 July, Nyamuragira erupted "small red-hot lava flows," according to one news report. High SO2 concentrations detected by the TOMS during 5-10 July were most likely caused by this activity at Nyamuragira and not from the lava lake at Nyiragongo. "SO2 gas emissions, radiated energy, and seismic activity during the April-December 2014 period illustrate very well the evolution of this new activity and the transition from lava fountaining activity to long-lived lava lake activity [figure 56].". Sci. Status Minor Eruption 2019 3058m Shield (Rift zone / Continental crust (> 25 km)) Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. During the first week of the eruption, the new cone (named Mikombe; "many bats") grew to 60-70 m height with basal dimensions of 400 x 300 m (figure 11). Three scoria cones formed adjacent to the fissure during the eruption, and a small lava lake appeared in the center of the largest cone. Even without a crisis, ongoing strong passive degassing contaminates rainwater, which is the primary water source in parts of the region (Cuoco and others, 2013). On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. GVO reported that on 27 November at 2200, incandescence from a new eruption of Nyamuragira was visible from Goma, about 30 km S. The intense red glow suggested lava fountaining and flows. By the end of February, two lava flows had extended 10 km. The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during early April Nyamuragira’s lava lake, which had returned in April 2018 after almost a year of quiet, continued to be active. Flights on 1 and 3 August confirmed that the eruption was continuing at a high rate, but another look on 27 September showed that the eruption had ceased (BGVN 27:10). This approach (also known as Middle InfraRed method) relies on the fact that whenever a hot emitter has an effective radiating temperature higher than 600 K, the excess radiance detected in the MIR region (DLMIR), can be linearly related to the radiative power. Kampala Domestic Service reported a felt earthquake in the Bushenyi district of Uganda, ~150 km NE of Nyamuragira at 0300 on 30 December. Lava lake. On 2 March a new eruption started on Nyamuragira's S flank. During 13-19 July 2003, LP earthquakes NE of the volcano again dominated seismicity. Two large swarms occurred on 7 and 8 July, with 161 LP earthquakes and 10 short-period earthquakes. N-flank fractures had opened and extended for ~2 km, reaching from the crater rim (2,959 m) down to an elevation of ~2,540 m. At the beginning of the activity, lava fountains appeared along the fractures and spatter accumulated around them. Depths for all of the earthquakes decreased from W to E and from S to N, suggesting a volcanic conduit rising in a generally NE direction towards the surface on the ESE flank of Nyamuragira. By the 26th, the flow had reached Nyasheke-South and was ~6 km from Kakomero, the base camp for climbers at the park entrance. Some small, short-lived vents removed by subsequent lava flows are not listed. The volcano has a lava lake in its crater. While the intensity of the lava flows lessened, registered seismic activity was at similar levels to December, before the eruption began. During 8-14 December the number of long-period earthquakes fell from to 169 at the Katale station from 239 the previous week, though the number of high-frequency earthquakes increased from 92 to 120. Map showing Nyamuragira lava flows from 1938-2010. From the 26th to the 28th TOMS detected 125 to 330 kt of SO2 in a cloud that may have come from the neighboring volcano Nyiragongo, but is believed to be from Nyamuragira. Bull Volcanol (2016) 78: 20. doi:10.1007/s00445-016-1014-7. | April of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL:; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL:; Tom Pfeiffer, Volcano Discovery (URL:; Erik Klemetti, Eruptions Blog, Wired (URL:; Cultur Volcan, Journal d'un volcanophile (URL:; MONUSCO, United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (URL:; Oliver Grunewald, Video filmed on 10 July 2015 (URL: MIROVA calculates the Volcanic Radiative Power (VRP) by using the "MIR method", an approach which was initially introduced by in order to estimate the heat radiated by active fires using satellite data (Wooster et al., 2003). Scientists observing Nyamuragira, following the eruption that began on 25 July, found that on 6 August the lower part of a fracture on the volcano's N flank was active. Prevention and Analysis of Volcanic Hazards in North Kivu, DRC, 8 p. Information Contacts: Katcho Karume and Kavotha Kalendi, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. The Alert Level remained at Yellow. According to Tedesco (2010), both tectonic earthquake (fracturing) and volcanic tremors (magma degassing) occurred simultaneously with the appearance of lava at the surface (figure 32). Rob Wright reported that this linear anomaly corresponded to an extensive lava flow. At that time, only one weak lava fountain remained active in the new crater. The lava lake remained active with periodic surges of thermal activity during November 2018-March 2019 (figure 82). More specifically, the forest surrounding Nyamuragira has been partly occupied by rebel groups since 1994, a situation that has thwarted geological observations. No hot spots were seen at Nyamuragira until 7 February 2001. In addition, a 2-km-long eruptive fracture on the volcano's NNW flank had several lava fountains along it and two cones being built. Lava has erupted spectacularly from a fissure low on one of the volcano's flanks and spilled northward, away from populated areas. Activity during November 2011-March 2012. After 15 March through at least July 2001, the same seismic patterns that preceded the February eruption were observed. As of 1 July, there was no indication that the eruption was nearing its end. This was followed by a period from early June through early November 2016 with no record of activity at Nyamuragira. on 24 November, the fissure had propagated ~3 km N and had formed seven cones. Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A NASA Earth Observatory image from 9 February 2015 clearly shows active plumes venting from both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo (figure 63). Beginning on 26 July around 0000, a steam-and-ash plume was visible on METEOSAT satellite imagery, below 6 km altitude, drifting to the WSW. The Goma volcano observatory confirmed that ash fell within a radius of 60 km of both volcanoes. Helicopter flights on 1 and 3 August revealed that the eruption continued at a high rate. | October About 3 LOS range increase fringes (~35 cm) are seen to the east of the fissure and about half a range decrease fringe (~6 cm) is seen to the west. Extrusion of the small lava flows continued. Many smaller branching flows were visible on the E side of the main flow. 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